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The pattern on the border or her homespun skirt will usually be far more intricate than the Chakma skirt. The Khumis maintain that in their Khumi language Kha means man and mi means the best race. The Khumis, therefore, are the dog race. Dog is a favorite item of food of Khumis, so they might have derived this name from this. According to their oral tradition humankind owes its creation to a dog. Dog was the first creation, and it had saved humans from total annihilation, they accordingly pay homage to it. The Khumis claim to be Buddhists, but their beliefs and religious rites are mostly animists.

Their chief god is Pathian. The eldest son inherits all the property. They have an oral language which belongs to the southern branch of the Kukish section. In their population was 2, The Khumis came to the hills of Chittagong from the hills of Arakan and Akyab in the seventeenth century.


They live on the ridges of hills and build their houses on tree-tops. Their villages are surrounded by bamboo walls. They were a ferocious race who was mostly engaged in warfare. They are renowned for their loyalty to their chiefs. They owed their allegiance to the Marma Bohmang chief and paid a yearly tribute to him through their village headman.

In the Mro population was 1, They had no chief of their own and owed their allegiance to the Marma Bohmang chief of Bandarban. Each village had a chief who collected tributes from each head of the family for the Bohmang chief. The Mros are animists. They do not have any priesthood or religious books. They believe that a bull which was sent by God Turai to carry the religious book for them had eaten up the book on the way. They have an oral dialect which belongs to the Tibeto-Burmese linguistic family.

Before the British conquest of the Lushai hills in , the Lushais were extremely ferocious. They choose mountain tops as their abodes. The entrance to a village was heavily guarded. They are animists. The Lushais are divided into different sects. It is a patriarchal society. The youngest son inherits all the property of the father.

They neither burn nor bury their dead. The body is clad in beautiful clothes and placed in a sitting position inside a bamboo cage. A fire is lit beside the body for a period of three months. After this, the bones are removed and then buried. Their language can be written in Latin script. During the British administration, missionaries were active among them; as a result, most of them took Christianity. Khiang Tribe In the Khiangs were a small group of people.

Their social organization was similar to those of the Mros and Khumis. They owed their allegiance to chiefs in Burma. They believe that some years ago their chief sought refuge from war in Burma in the hills of Chittagong. The chief was accompanied by his younger wife who was pregnant. But he left behind this wife and some soldiers and went back to Burma.

The Khiangs believe that they are descendants of those soldiers left behind in the CHT. They have no sub-castes or sects. Their language belongs to the Kuki-Chin group. Their population in was about 3, They owed their allegiance to the Bohmang chief and paid tribute to him through their elected headman. Formerly they were a ferocious people who built their houses on mountain tops. Their villages were very heavily armed and guarded. They lost their military skills after their annexation by the British.

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Armenian Church. Ahsan Manzil Pink Palace. All Recommendations. How to Spend 3 Days in Dhaka. How to Spend 2 Days in Dhaka. How to Spend 1 Day in Dhaka. Cox's Bazar. West Bengal. Select Dates. The park has been declared as Eco-park to conserve the Madhabkunda waterfall and surrounding biodiversity which has widen a new facet of developing eco-tourism, biodiversity conservation and development of education and research in the areas. Dulahazra Safari Park: a promising park for eco-tourism established in with an area of hectare of land and is located near Chakaria.

An amazing park where the visitors can watch animals in natural state moving freely in large areas. Visitors from the Middle East, Pakistan, India, Korea, Thailand and Japan can be attracted to the historically important sanctuaries like mosque, shrines, tombs, temples, churches and Buddhist monasteries. Specially, Dhaka has several hundred historic mosques and is known as the city of mosques. There are some famous and ancient churches in Bangladesh which are considered as important attractions to the tourists.

These include St. These are the main ways of joy, entertainment and colour for life. It is important to mention here that most of the festivals have sprung from religious ritual and the fairs have their roots in the very heart of the people of Bangladesh irrespective of religion, caste or creed. The first day of Bengali New Year is 14th April and is observed as a govt holiday. The day-long colourful gathering, fairs, cultural shows, tournaments, boat races, discussion etc.

The day is also a public holiday in Bangladesh. In this day, the country wears a celebratory look especially in capital city and other major cities of the country. People from all corners of the society including government leaders, socio-political organizations and freedom fighters place, cultural organizations, students, intellectuals, journalists, Head of the foreign missions, floral wreaths at the National Martyrs Monument at Savar. For a dazzling look, all public and private buildings and establishments are illuminated.

The day is also a public holiday. The commander of the Pakistani occupation forces surrendered on 16 December at Suhrawardy Uddayan formerly known as the Race Course Maiden in Dhaka and Bangladesh became as an independent country. He was born and died the same day. The Muslim community offers special prayers, milad mahfils, munajats and the discussions are arranged on the Islamic ideals, way of life and teaching of the prophet s.

The day is national a holiday. This is held on the day following the Ramadan or the month of fasting. In Dhaka big congregations are held at the National Eidgah and many mosques as well as all over the country. After the Eid congregations are held throughout the country in the morning and people sacrifice domestic animals like cows, goats, sheep camels etc.

It is a public holiday. Millions of Muslim devotees from the different part of the world gather there and hold the discussion on the ideal of Muslim, the way of life directed by the great Prophet Hazrat Muhammad s , offer a special prayer for the peace of Muslim Ummah as well as for the well-being of the world at the end of the congregation.

Different cultural programs are arranged and discussions are held on those occasions. Another very attractive festival of Hindu community which is known as Langalbandh Mela is observed by them every year near Sonargaon on the last day of Chaittra last Bengali month. They also celebrate Baishakhi Purnima and Maghi Purnima through out the country. In addition to that, various other festivals are habitually observed by Bangalees all the year round.

These hilly regions keep significant differences from the rest of the country on a number of points because of its indigenous inhabitants belong to different ethnic indigenous minorities who have a distinctive lifestyle from the majority of the population. The most of the hilly regions are located in greater Chittagong district among which Khagrachari known as the hilltop town , Bandarban known as the roof of Bangladesh and Rangamati also known as the Lake District are famous ones.

There are some other attractive hills in Khasia and Jaintia in Sylhet territory. Bangladesh is a land of rivers that crisscrossed throughout the mostly flat territories of the country. Rivers are the most important geographical features in Bangladesh. The Padma, Jamuna, Brahmaputra etc, the most important rivers along with other hundreds of rivers have created breath-taking riverine beauty for the tourists.

In addition to that there are also some attractive islands and lake which can draw the attention of the recreationists and are considered as the tourism products for the tourists. The positive impression obviously will result the repeat visit by the same tourist as well as it will serve the purpose of word of oral advertisement for the destination. Buyers judge whether a product or service is fairly priced by asking themselves whether it represents value for money. It is expected that the tourists will receive more value or at least equal to their perceived value after visiting the destination or tourist spot.

A study about the reasonableness of prices on some selected components of tourism arrangements in Bangladesh which is presented in the following table:. TABLE 5. The information materials and shopping items have considered to them as quite reasonable mean score is above 4. It indicates that the tourism authority and the marketer of the same need to devote their attention in such a way so that it can satisfy the visitors in a more positive way.

It was mentioned earlier that promotional measures play a vital role in tourism marketing like other products or services which needs the marketers to conduct the same in an effective way. Effectiveness is important rather than how much the promoter has spent for this purpose or how many times he has advertised or even which media he has used.

The following table shows the effectiveness of various forms of promotional measures of Bangladesh tourism industry:. It is found from the above table that only word of mouth is quite effective with a mean score of 4. Tourists rely more on personal source of information and, hence, personal selling will be the most effective promotional tool in tourism marketing. The mean score of Internet is 3.

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The researchers also mentioned that the overall mean score of effectiveness of all the promotional forms accounted to 3. This overall mean effectiveness score 3. But most of the private tour operates established newly and lack the sufficient amount of funds. Instead of the lacks of sufficient amount of funds, both BPC and private tour operators are trying to conduct the promotional activities in order to attract more tourists to its destination and thus, develop the tourism industry in Bangladesh. As we know that marketing promotion includes advertising, Personal selling, sales promotion and publicity.

All these tools of promotion are used in promoting Bangladesh tourism. BPC also uses a web site for disseminating the information to the potential tourists. But the fact is that the web site does not contain the complete information of Bangladesh tourism and it related facilities. As a result, it is tough for a potential tourist to have the required information from the said page.

Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation is trying at its utmost level by using the different form and techniques of promotional tools.

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The following table shows the year-wise foreign exchange earnings of BPC and promotion expenditure:. It is apparent from the table 5. The spending for the same purpose increased to Tk. Because of the diverse location of the potential tourists and the increasing competition among the different competitive destination countries, tourism sector needs undertake vigorous promotional activities at the national and international levels.

Again, the promotion for tourism needs to have the international coverage which requires using international media. To use the international media for promoting any product or service needs a hand some amount of money to spend. But it is clear that the amount spend by BPC is not sufficient enough to use international media covering a vast area of the potential tourist attracting regions.

As a result, Bangladesh fails to highlight its tourist attractions to the potential tourists as well as to draw the attention and influence them to select Bangladesh as a tourist destination. The insufficiency of the fund for conducting promotional activities, BPC has to depend on the local media, posters, folders, brochures, tourist maps etc. Hardly two or three operators are using the web page for the promotion of the tourism in Bangladesh.

All most all the tour operators use all the tools of promotion mix in order to promote the industry. They make the advertisements in local newspapers, magazines and televisions. In addition to that they also use the printed materials like brochures, souvenirs, booklet, guides and posters, folders in disseminating information among the potential tourists in order to draw their attention and grow interest among the potential tourists.

BPC has the arrangements to train up their employees and contact personnel to ensure the better interactions and maintain good relationships with the prospective tourists and to motivate them in visiting Bangladesh. BPC and some of the larger private tour operators maintain contact with the foreign tour operators to influence them highlight Bangladesh tourism and its facilities to the foreign tourists.

Both the private tour operators and BPC uses the techniques of sales promotion which include quantity discount, children discount, off-season price rebate and improved service packages for it package tours, cruise programs and accommodations to persuade the local tourist as well as the foreign tourists. Occasionally, BPC arranges different cultural night shows, food festivals, seminars, symposiums, audio-visual presentations etc. BPC has a web site to provide the information of Bangladesh tourism and its facilities among the prospective tourists though the web site is not well designed.

Earlier it has been discussed the situation of the tourist arrivals by different regions and sub-regions along with its share as well as the situation prevailing in the South Asian countries. Attempts were also made to highlight details of the same for Bangladesh. The following table shows the tourist arrivals in Bangladesh in different years and the rate of growth of the same:.

TABLE 6. The table shows that the number of tourist arrivals in Bangladesh has increased to , in from , in which shows an average annual growth rate of 7.

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The tourist arrivals increased in by In general, the statistics shows a very good and positive trend. But the fact is that the overall scenario is not good. This rate can be considered very accelerative for those countries that have already matured in the market. But for the initial level of market entry, the above growth rate is not a positive one. By using the above data Table 6. The marketing performance of any tourism organization can be evaluated based on the earnings by the organization. So, it was attempted to focus on the earnings of BPC and the growth rate of the same for the last couple of years to have a clear picture of the sector in terms of financial performance.

The following table is shows the earnings and growth rate of the same of BPC, the only government owned tourism organization in Bangladesh:. The earnings from tourism in Bangladesh was Tk. There is also a very positive sign that every year from to has a positive growth rate except The year is exceptional and achieved a negative growth rate over its preceding year may be due to devastating flood in all over the country and which lasted about 2 months. The highest growth rate was achieved in which is From the above table, comment can be made that though Bangladesh does not have a good position in world tourism, but the trend of growth rate in the earnings is encouraging.

As it was clear from the discussion made in the earlier sections that the position of Bangladesh in world tourist arrivals and even is not amazing through the industry is growing faster than in any other industry. It was also observed that in the South Asian countries, the position of Bangladesh is very insignificant. It is almost half of the total tourist arrivals in Bangladesh.

The share of the tourist arrivals from SAARC countries to Bangladesh was more than 40 percent from to which was decreased to The share of Indian tourists travelled Bangladesh constituted The second highest number comes from Pakistan which was A tourist destination country needs to provide the secured accommodation facilities to the foreign tourists as well as to the local tourists.

In addition to the above every country has many other cheap hotels, motels, guest houses etc. Tourism is now a fastest growing industry in the world. The ever increasing growth of this industry and its market has increased the competition among the tourists importing countries. As a result, the success of any destination country depends on how well it can initiate and adopt the competitive marketing strategy over its competitors.

The destination country needs to take the effective marketing measures so that they can gain the positive result through attracting more tourists to its destination. Bangladesh is trying to attract more tourists to its destination through different measures. But the country lacks far behind to conduct the appropriate and sufficient measures regarding the marketing measures.

One of the reasons of not succeeding Bangladesh tourism is ineffective marketing plans undertaken for the sector. So, it is essential for the policy makers of the concern industry to consider the following issues very carefully and on the priority basis for the expected development of the industry. The tourism industry has also suffered significantly due to the bomb attacks and terrorist activities in the recent past years.

Standard hotel accommodation and transport system in Bangladesh is not adequate for attracting international tourists even the local tourists. With poor infrastructure, little marketing sense and direction, and a national carrier too busy serving the labour traffic, tourism potentials of Bangladesh this far remained unexploited.

Another key aspect of infrastructure is the availability of monetary funds during travel. Both the existing literature and the data collected show that the promotional measures taken by Bangladesh tourism are not effective. The existing literature shows that the promotional activities undertaken by this sector is very traditional in form and are limited to folders, posters, accommodation guide etc.

As most of the tour operators are new in this area of marketing, they lack the experience and capital to run the business as most of them expressed their sufferings due to lack of fund for conducting the necessary promotional activities for the marketing of tourism services. Though BPC uses its web page, but it is not capable to highlight the Bangladesh tourism attractions and the necessary related information properly.

Bangladesh has huge potential for attracting foreign tourists as it has a deep cultural heritage, a number of ancient monuments and temples, and a rich natural heritage, including tropical forests, beautiful hills, rivers, and national parks. The country offers bargain-shopping and exotic souvenirs, as well as a wide variety of activities, from eco-friendly to adventure tourism. The growth of the tourism industry in the Asia and the Pacific region is more accelerating than any other region. Bangladesh has a vast prospect to gain maximum outcome from the tourism industry as the country has some unique attractions.

It is endowed with resources and the potential for a tourism industry. The range of the hills clad in lush green thickets are treasured locations for eco-tourists and wildlife watchers. The Tea District of Sylhet in the far north-east of the country has prospects of tourism, as does the Sundarbans, a large mangrove forest in the South which is home of the Bengal tiger; remains of palaces of old principalities and archaeological sites of Buddhist monasteries.

Shrines and holy places, mosques and temples, particularly in the northern part of the country, are among the tourist treasures of Bangladesh. The average growth rate in tourist arrivals in Bangladesh from to is 7. Bangladesh offers opportunities for angling, water-skiing, river cruising, hiking, rowing, surfing, yachting and sea bathing as well as bringing one in close touch with Mother Nature.

The country is also rich in wildlife. A country in South Asia with an area of , square kilometres, Bangladesh definitely offers a lot to see enjoy and do. The country can become popular as an eco-destination in South Asia. This indicates that the concern authority needs to undertake proper initiatives from the government level to correct the present image and needs to have the international media coverage in a positive way.

In , an increase in tourist arrivals of The effective measures can uphold the present growth rate or even can be useful to accelerate the growth rate and can contribute to earning more from this sector. So, due attention and initiatives are essential for a significant growth of this sector. It is a must to attract foreign tourists to earn foreign currency from this sector which needs to conduct the marketing promotion at the international level especially to those countries or destinations from where the host county wants to attract or receive the tourists. To conduct any promotional measure or campaign for any product or service in the international level needs to use the media which has the international coverage like international Newspapers, Internet, Cable TV, participation in the international tourism fairs etc and these media are also expensive.

But the total promotion budget of BPC was Tk. In consideration of the amount spent for promotion in the year is the highest amount since the inception of BPC. It can easily comment that this amount for promotional activities for a vital sector like tourism is quite insufficient in conducting any promotional campaign at the national and international levels. This leads BPC not to take any vigorous promotional effort for tourism. If Bangladesh tourism wants to undertake any extensive promotional campaign more promotional budget is required to allocate for the same.

The empirical data shows that the mean score of the effectiveness is 3. It indicates that the promotional measures undertaken by BPC can affect the potential tourists in a very limited scale which causes not to attract the expected number of tourists and earning from the sector.

If Bangladesh wants to attract a large number of tourists for earning more foreign currency by using the full potential of this sector, there is no alternative of taking rigorous promotional activities at least to some major tourists generating destinations or countries. The present trend in tourist arrivals in Bangladesh indicates that the average annual growth rate in tourist arrivals to Bangladesh 7.

Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation forecasted that if the present growth rate continues, Bangladesh will receive , tourists in and the earning from this sector will increase accordingly BPC, though it is not suggested by the projected valued of the regression model. Out of the 20 respondents, 5 were from Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation BPC , the only National Tourism Organization in Bangladesh started its operation in and the remaining 15 were from private tour operators. Among the private tour operators, seven out of fifteen constituting It also indicates that the government should extend the cooperation to provide some training to enhance the skills of the operators and should provide some extra opportunities to the tour operators to get long-term loan at a minimum interest so that they can meet their financial requirements.

Though the number of arrivals in Bangladesh increased during this period to , there is a minor decrease from 3. These can be again increased by taking the proper measures and attracting more tourists to the destination of Bangladesh. But if the tourism destination and it facilities is not properly highlighted to potential tourists, no destination can expect more tourists to visit same. Bangladesh National Tourism Organization needs to develop a well designed sophisticated web page so that the potential tourists can get all the necessary information related to Bangladesh tourism from any corner or part of the world and thus, can make their queries and bookings through online easily.

TABLE Their suggestions can be presented in a summarised form in the following table:. BPC should have full autonomy to take necessary decision timely Infrastructural development is needed. Developing new products or services in the destinations. Well designed website is needed Foreign mission should be involved in promotional activities. Law and order situation should be developed. Need coordinated promotion activities by NTO and other parties involved.

Govt support to the private tour operators is necessary for the development of this sector. Tax holiday for vehicles is necessary for minimizing cost of operation. Based on the findings of the study the following suggestions can be put forwarded to improve the promotion of tourism industry in Bangladesh:. Correcting the image of the country The image of the destination plays a vital role to attract tourists to that particular destination.

But Bangladesh is suffering from the image problem because of some international media. These media highlight Bangladesh negatively which results to create misconception among the potential tourists. Even some Non Government Organizations NGOs do the same thing in order to collect funds by highlighting the country as a dreadfully poor, flood ravaged, pestilence and means there is nothing to be in a country to consider as a tourist destination.

To some extent, it may be partially true but is not the fact as a whole. So, Bangladesh tourism should emphasize first on its promotional measures to correct this negative image. As Bangladesh tourism industry has not enough funds to use to international media for correcting this negative image, it should emphasize on the printed materials and to distribute it to the potential tourists through different airlines, foreign tour operators and foreign mission abroad etc.

Ensuring the security of the tourists Security at the destination place is considered as one of the major factors for the foreign tourists.