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Lactose is made from one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose. It is not uncommon for humans to have difficulties breaking down lactose into glucose and galactose after eating dairy products. This is the cause of the health condition known as lactose intolerance which can cause diarrhea, bloating, gas and throwing up. The names of monosaccharide and disaccharide carbohydrates finish with the suffix -ose. For example fructose, glucose, galactose, sucrose and lactose. A polysaccharide is three or more monosaccharides joined together.

In the exact same way that a disaccharide is formed, polysaccharides form through multiple dehydration reactions between carbohydrates. A polysaccharide, which is made from many monomers, can be called a polymer. Some polymers are more than monomers or monosaccharides long. Polysaccharides have a range of biological functions. A key function they fill is as a temporary storage of energy. Plants store energy in the form of the polysaccharide known as 'starch'.

Biochemistry Quick Review Carbohydrate Metabolism Digestion and Glycolysis Quick Review Notes

Many crops, such as corn, rice and potatoes, are important because of their high starch content. A second important role of polysaccharides is providing structural support. Plants have two very important structural polysaccharides: cellulose and lignin.

Principles of Biochemistry/The Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

Cellulose is the key compound that makes up the cell walls of plant cells. Lignin is the structural compound that makes wood and has enabled plants to evolve into giant trees. Animals and fungi also use polysaccharides as structural materials. Chitin is a polysaccharide found in the exoskeletons of insects, spiders and crustaceans as well as in the cell walls of fungi.

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Ch Carbohydrate Fischer Projections

These nutrients also differ in how quickly they supply energy. Carbohydrates are the quickest, and fats are the slowest. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are digested in the intestine, where they are broken down into their basic units:. The body uses these basic units to build substances it needs for growth, maintenance, and activity including other carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Simple carbohydrates: Various forms of sugar, such as glucose and sucrose table sugar , are simple carbohydrates. They are small molecules, so they can be broken down and absorbed by the body quickly and are the quickest source of energy.

They quickly increase the level of blood glucose blood sugar. Fruits, dairy products, honey, and maple syrup contain large amounts of simple carbohydrates, which provide the sweet taste in most candies and cakes. Complex carbohydrates: These carbohydrates are composed of long strings of simple carbohydrates. Because complex carbohydrates are larger molecules than simple carbohydrates, they must be broken down into simple carbohydrates before they can be absorbed.

Thus, they tend to provide energy to the body more slowly than simple carbohydrates but still more quickly than protein or fat.


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Because they are digested more slowly than simple carbohydrates, they are less likely to be converted to fat. They also increase blood sugar levels more slowly and to lower levels than simple carbohydrates but for a longer time. Complex carbohydrates include starches and fibers, which occur in wheat products such as breads and pastas , other grains such as rye and corn , beans, and root vegetables such as potatoes and sweet potatoes.

Refined means that the food is highly processed. The fiber and bran, as well as many of the vitamins and minerals they contain, have been stripped away. Thus, the body processes these carbohydrates quickly, and they provide little nutrition although they contain about the same number of calories.

Refined products are often enriched, meaning vitamins and minerals have been added back to increase their nutritional value. A diet high in simple or refined carbohydrates tends to increase the risk of obesity and diabetes. If people consume more carbohydrates than they need at the time, the body stores some of these carbohydrates within cells as glycogen and converts the rest to fat.

Glycogen is a complex carbohydrate that the body can easily and rapidly convert to energy. Glycogen is stored in the liver and the muscles. Muscles use glycogen for energy during periods of intense exercise. A few other body tissues store carbohydrates as complex carbohydrates that cannot be used to provide energy.

Added sugars are syrups and other caloric sweeteners used in other food products. Added sugars are listed as an ingredient in food labels. They include brown sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fructose, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, invert sugar, lactose, malt syrup, maltose, molasses, raw sugar, sucrose, trehalose, and turbinado sugar. Naturally occurring sugars, such as those in fruit or milk, are not added sugars.

The glycemic index of a carbohydrate represents how quickly its consumption increases blood sugar levels. Values range from 1 the slowest to the fastest, the index of pure glucose. However, how quickly the level actually increases also depends on what other foods are ingested at the same time and other factors. The glycemic index tends to be lower for complex carbohydrates than for simple carbohydrates, but there are exceptions. For example, fructose the sugar in fruits has little effect on blood sugar. Processing: Processed, refined, or finely ground foods tend to have a higher glycemic index.

Type of starch: Different types of starch are absorbed differently. For example, potato starch is digested and absorbed into the bloodstream relatively quickly. Barley is digested and absorbed much more slowly. Fiber content: The more fiber a food has, the harder it is to digest. As a result, sugar is absorbed more slowly into the bloodstream.

Ripeness of fruit: The riper the fruit, the more sugar it contains, and the higher its glycemic index. Fat or acid content: The more fat or acid a food contains, the more slowly it is digested and the more slowly its sugars are absorbed into the bloodstream. Preparation: How a food is prepared can influence how quickly it is absorbed into the bloodstream. Generally, cooking or grinding a food increases its glycemic index because these processes make food easier to digest and absorb. Other factors: The way the body processes food varies from person to person, affecting how quickly carbohydrates are converted to sugar and absorbed.

How well a food is chewed and how quickly it is swallowed also have an effect. Red lentils. Whole wheat. Corn flakes. Puffed rice. Shredded wheat. Orange juice. Brown rice. White rice. Mashed white. Oligo means Few in the Greek language.

The metabolic effects of low‚Äźcarbohydrate diets and incorporation into a biochemistry course

Also called oligosaccharides. These are complex sugars When hydrolyzing these sugars yields 2 to 10 molecules of the same or different monosaccharide molecules.

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They are further classified as disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, etc. These carbohydrates liberate a large number of monosaccharide molecules on hydrolysis. They are usually amorphous, insoluble in water and tasteless and are called non-sugars. What are Polysaccharides? They are again sub-divided into two types. They are homopolysaccharides and heteropolysaccharides. Homopolysaccharides Homopolysaccharides They possess only a single type of monosaccharide units.

Important: In the classification of carbohydrates as saccharides glucose is a while starch is a homopolysaccharide and consists of repeating units of glucose molecules.


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Classification carbohydrates are also classified as reducing and non-reducing sugars. It is a minor classification. Eg: Glucose. In disaccharides, if the reducing group of monosaccharides, i. The above Carbohydrates classification is universally accepted classification.