Visit the discussion forum. Food production has always been present in the economic debate because of the concern about the outcomes of population growth and demographic changes. In this respect, one of the most famous references is the book Essay on the Principle of Population , written by the British economist Thomas Malthus, that describes the challenges of unbalanced growth of food production in relation to the population rate of growth. At that time, population control was considered to be one of the proposals to face food challenges Malthus, Access to food refers to the lack of financial resources that prevents households from purchasing food, mainly in urban areas, in addition to the lack of financial resources in small business to buy land and inputs and also to adopt modern technologies.
Through history, new methods of food production have emerged which allowed increases in food supply. Technological changes, however, have not occurred uniformly throughout the world Friedmann, Indeed, some countries have expanded their agricultural production and met their food needs while the lack of access to food still creates situations of hunger that remain a reality in many parts of the world. These countries were also characterized as having slower population growth , lower HIV rates, and higher rankings in the Human Development Index.
In The State of Food Insecurity in the World , the FAO restated its focus on economic growth and agricultural growth to achieve food security and added a focus on the poor and on "nutrition-sensitive" growth. For example, economic growth should be used by governments to provide public services to benefit poor and hungry populations. The FAO also cited smallholders, including women, as groups that should be involved in agricultural growth to generate employment for the poor. For economic and agricultural growth to be "nutrition-sensitive", resources should be utilized to improve access to diverse diets for the poor as well as access to a safe water supply and to healthcare.
The FAO has proposed a "twin track" approach to fight food insecurity that combines sustainable development and short-term hunger relief. Development approaches include investing in rural markets and rural infrastructure. To obtain short-term food security, vouchers for seeds, fertilizer , or access to services could promote agricultural production. The use of conditional or unconditional food or cash transfers was another approach the FAO noted. Conditional transfers could include school feeding programs , while unconditional transfers could include general food distribution, emergency food aid or cash transfers.
A third approach is the use of subsidies as safety nets to increase the purchasing power of households. The FAO stated that "approaches should be human rights-based, target the poor, promote gender equality, enhance long-term resilience and allow sustainable graduation out of poverty. The FAO noted that some countries have been successful in fighting food insecurity and decreasing the number of people suffering from undernourishment. Bangladesh is an example of a country that has met the Millennium Development Goal hunger target.
The FAO credited growth in agricultural productivity and macroeconomic stability for the rapid economic growth in the s that resulted in an increase in food security. Irrigation systems were established through infrastructure development programs. Two programs, HarvestPlus and the Golden Rice Project, provided biofortified crops in order to decrease micronutrient deficiencess.
On this day, the FAO hosts a variety of event at the headquarters in Rome and around the world, as well as seminars with UN officials. In particular, the WFP provides food aid to refugees and to others experiencing food emergencies. It also seeks to improve nutrition and quality of life to the most vulnerable populations and promote self-reliance. In April , the Food Assistance Convention was signed, the world's first legally binding international agreement on food aid.
The May Copenhagen Consensus recommended that efforts to combat hunger and malnutrition should be the first priority for politicians and private sector philanthropists looking to maximize the effectiveness of aid spending. They put this ahead of other priorities, like the fight against malaria and AIDS. The main global policy to reduce hunger and poverty are the recently approved Sustainable Development Goals. In particular Goal 2: Zero Hunger sets globally agreed targets to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture by The United States Agency for International Development USAID proposes several key steps to increasing agricultural productivity , which is in turn key to increasing rural income and reducing food insecurity.
Since the s, the U. According to Tim Josling, a Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford University , food stamps or other methods of distribution of purchasing power directly to consumers might fit into the range of international programs under consideration to tackle food insecurity. There are strong, direct relationships between agricultural productivity, hunger, poverty, and sustainability. Three-quarters of the world's poor live in rural areas and make their living from agriculture.
Hunger and child malnutrition are greater in these areas than in urban areas. Moreover, the higher the proportion of the rural population that obtains its income solely from subsistence farming without the benefit of pro-poor technologies and access to markets , the higher the incidence of malnutrition. Therefore, improvements in agricultural productivity aimed at small-scale farmers will benefit the rural poor first. Food and feed crop demand is likely to double in the next 50 years, as the global population approaches nine billion.
Growing sufficient food will require people to make changes such as increasing productivity in areas dependent on rainfed agriculture ; improving soil fertility management; expanding cropped areas; investing in irrigation ; conducting agricultural trade between countries; and reducing gross food demand by influencing diets and reducing post-harvest losses. According to the Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture , a major study led by the International Water Management Institute IWMI , managing rainwater and soil moisture more effectively, and using supplemental and small-scale irrigation, hold the key to helping the greatest number of poor people.
It has called for a new era of water investments and policies for upgrading rainfed agriculture that would go beyond controlling field-level soil and water to bring new freshwater sources through better local management of rainfall and runoff. With more money, farmers are more likely to diversify production and grow higher-value crops, benefiting not only themselves but the economy as a whole. It may be that an alliance between the emergency food program and community-supported agriculture is beneficial, as some countries' food stamps cannot be used at farmer's markets and places where food is less processed and grown locally.
The minimum annual global wheat storage is approximately two months. Insurance is a financial instrument, which allows exposed individuals to pool resources to spread their risk. They do so by contributing premium to an insurance fund, which will indemnify those who suffer insured loss. Insurance can be designed to protect many types of individuals and assets against single or multiple perils and buffer insured parties against sudden and dramatic income or asset loss. Crop insurance is purchased by agricultural producers to protect themselves against either the loss of their crops due to natural disasters.
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Two type of insurances are available:  claim-based insurances and index-based insurances. In particular, in poor countries facing food security problems, index-based insurances offer some advantages, including indices that can be derived from globally available satellite images that correlate well with what is insured. These indices can be delivered at low cost, and the insurance products open up new markets that are not served by claim-based insurances.
An advantage of index-based insurance is that it can potentially be delivered at lower cost. A significant barrier that hinders uptake of claim-based insurance is the high transaction cost for searching for prospective policyholders, negotiating and administering contracts, verifying losses and determining payouts. Index insurance eliminates the loss verification step, thereby mitigating a significant transaction cost.
A second advantage of index-based insurance is that, because it pays an indemnity based on the reading of an index rather than individual losses, it eliminates much of the fraud, moral hazard and adverse selection, which are common in classical claim-based insurance. A further advantage of index insurance is that payments based on a standardized and indisputable index also allow for a fast indemnity payment. The indemnity payment could be automated, further reducing transaction costs. Basis risk is a major disadvantage of index-based insurance. It is the situation where an individual experiences a loss without receiving payment or vice versa.
Basis risk is a direct result of the strength of the relation between the index that estimates the average loss by the insured group and the loss of insured assets by an individual. The weaker this relation the higher the basis risk. High basis risk undermines the willingness of potential clients to purchase insurance.
It thus challenges insurance companies to design insurances such as to minimize basis risk.
Water for Food Security, Nutrition and Social Justice
The Food Justice Movement has been seen as a unique and multifaceted movement with relevance to the issue of food security. It has been described as a movement about social-economic and political problems in connection to environmental justice , improved nutrition and health, and activism. Today, a growing number of individuals and minority groups are embracing the Food Justice due to the perceived increase in hunger within nations such as the United States as well as the amplified effect of food insecurity on many minority communities, particularly the Black and Latino communities.
A number of organizations have either championed the Food Justice Cause or greatly impacted the Food Justice space. An example of a prominent organization within the food justice movement has been the Coalition of Immokalee Workers , which is a worker-based human rights organization that has been recognized globally for its accomplishments in the areas of human trafficking, social responsibility and gender-based violence at work. The Coalition of Immoaklee Workers most prominent accomplishment related to the food justice space has been its part in implementing the Fair Food Program , which increased the pay and bettered working conditions of farm workers in the tomato industry who had been exploited for generations.
This accomplishment provided over 30, workers more income and the ability to access better and more healthy foods for themselves and their families. Another organization in the food justice space is the Fair Food Network, an organization that has embraced the mission of helping familIes who need healthy food to gain access to it while also increasing the livelihoold for farmers in America and growing local economies. Started by Oran B. Bees and other pollinating insects are currently improving the food production of 2 billion small farmers worldwide, helping to ensure food security for the world's population.
Research shows that if pollination is managed well on small diverse farms, with all other factors being equal, crop yields can increase by a significant median of 24 percent. How animal pollinators positively affect fruit condition and nutrient content is still being discovered. As of [update] , the concept of food security has mostly focused on food calories rather than the quality and nutrition of food. The concept of nutrition security evolved over time. In , it has been defined as "adequate nutritional status in terms of protein, energy, vitamins, and minerals for all household members at all times".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Food safety. Measure of availability and accessibility of food. Further information: List of famines. Main article: Food security in Mexico. Further information: Hunger in the United States. See also: Malnutrition. See also: Water resource policy. See also: Land degradation and Desertification. See also: Climate change and agriculture. Main article: Food versus fuel. See also: Political corruption.
See also: Food waste. Further information: — world food price crisis and Food prices. Further information: World population. Further information: Agriculture and petroleum and Peak oil's effects on agriculture. Further information: Global catastrophic risk. Further information: Agricultural policy of the United States.
Main article: Gender and food security. Main article: Food Justice Movement. Food portal Business portal. FAO, UN. Financial Times.
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Goal 2: Zero Hunger - United Nations Sustainable Development
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The Atlantic. Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Description Table of Contents Author s Bio. Summary This book is the first comprehensive effort to bring together Water, Food Security and Nutrition FSN in a way that goes beyond the traditional focus on irrigated agriculture. Table of Contents 1. Request an e-inspection copy. Share this Title. Recommend to Librarian. Shopping Cart Summary. Items Subtotal. View Cart. Offline Computer — Download Bookshelf software to your desktop so you can view your eBooks with or without Internet access.